Symphony No.9 in D minor – opus 125 – Fourth movement : Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)


Terisnpirasi oleh Postingan Mp3 Symphony ini oleh Yoan (http://mahandisyoanata.multiply.com/music/item/24), thx to Yoan :)…..Sebuah Komposisi mahakarya yang sangat megah dan mengagumkan….. :)) (tapi mau di upload lagunya rada susah, soalnya 16MB)


The ”Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125” is the last complete symphony composed by Ludwig van Beethoven. Completed in 1824, it includes part of the ”Ode An die Freude” (“Ode To Joy”) by Friedrich Schiller, with text sung by soloists and a chorus in the last movement. It is the first example of a major composer using the human voice on the same level with instruments in a symphony.


The ”official name” is: Symphony No. 9 in D minor, opus 125. The symphony is sometimes referred to as “Choral”, pointing to the vocal end of the symphony. Beethoven had wanted to set Schiller’s ‘Ode to Joy’ to music for many years and in fact later stated that he had wished to write an alternative instrumental ending to the Ninth Symphony, leaving an interpretation of the ‘Ode to Joy’ as a separate work.


This symphony is one of the best known of all works of European classical music, and is considered one of Beethoven’s greatest masterpieces, composed while he was nearing complete deafness. It plays a prominent cultural role in modern society.


In particular, the music from the fourth movement (Ode to Joy) is used as the official anthem of theEuropean Union (the German lyrics have no official status). Further testament to its prominence is that an original manuscript of this work sold in 2003 for 3.3 million dollars. Due to the universal appeal of this symphony, it is now part of the UNESCO’s Memory of the World Register.


First movement


The first movement is in sonata form, following a formal model that had guided Beethoven throughout his career. The mood is generally bleak and stormy. A striking moment here is the onset of the recapitulation section, which instead of literally repeating the ”pianissimo” opening bars in D minor, switches to ”fortissimo” D major, a key change which has struck many listeners, paradoxically, as expressing terror or awe. The coda employs the chromatic fourth in a way that was copied by Bruckner in his own Third Symphony. The piccolo, contrabassoon, and trombones are not called for in this movement; however, this is the first appearance of the quartet of horns in a Beethoven symphony.


Second movement


The second movement, a scherzo, is likewise in D minor, with the opening theme a kind of echo of the theme of the first movement, a pattern found likewise in the Piano Sonata No. 29 Hammerklavier piano sonata, written a few years earlier. It is notable for its propulsive rhythm and timpani solos (for this purpose the two timpani are tuned, unusually, an octave apart).  At one point Beethoven gives the direction ”ritmo di tre battute”, meaning that the beats of three consecutive measures must form a single rhythmic unit, as if the music were in 9/4 instead of 3/4 time; this is later reverted with ”ritmo di quattro battute”, with the typical four-measure beat.  The movement is also notable for a number of rests used for dramatic effect.


The contrasting trio section is in D major and in duple time. The trio also marks the first arrival of the trombones in the work.


Third movement


The lyrical and deeply felt slow movement, in B-flat major, is written in a loose variation form, with each of the two variations dividing the basic beat to produce a more elaborate melodic configuration than what went before. The first variation, like the theme, is in 4/4 time, the second in 12/8. The variations are separated by more impassioned passages in 3/4, the first in D major, the second in G major. The final variation is twice interrupted by striking episodes in which loud fanfares for the full orchestra are answered by double-stopped octaves played by the first violins alone. Also worth noting is a virtuosic horn solo assigned to the fourth player. Trombones are tacet for the movement.


Fourth movement


The famous choral finale has struck many listeners as somewhat rambling. Some helpful clarification can be found in the description of Charles Rosen, who characterizes it as a symphony within a symphony, containing four movements played without interruption. This “inner symphony” follows the same overall pattern as the Ninth Symphony as a whole. The scheme is as follows:


*First “movement”:  theme and variations with slow introduction. Main theme which first appears in the cellos and basses is “recapitulated” with voices(see below).


*Second “movement”:  6/8 scherzo in military style (begins at “Alla marcia”, words “Froh, wie seine Sonnen fliegen”). Beethoven’s older listeners at the premiere would have recognized this as so-called “Turkish music.” Concludes with 6/8 variation of the main theme with chorus.


*Third “movement”:  slow meditation with a new theme on the text “Seid umschlungen, Millionen!” (begins at “Andante maestoso”)


*Fourth “movement”:  fugue|fugato finale on the themes of the first and third “movements” (begins at ” Allegro energico”)


The movement differs from an independent symphony because of its thematic unity:  every part is based on either the main theme, the “Seid umschlungen” theme, or some combination of the two. 


The first “movement within a movement” itself is organized into sections: 


*An introduction, which starts with a stormy, chaotic ”Presto” passage.  It then briefly quotes all three of the previous movements in order, each dismissed in various ways by the cellos and basses, which play in an instrumental foreshadowing of the vocal recitative.  The introduction eventually “discovers” the famous theme.


*A series of variations for orchestra alone.


*The introduction is then repeated from the ”Presto” passage, this time with the bass soloist singing the recitatives previously suggested by cellos and basses.


*The variations again, this time for vocal soloists and chorus.


 


Elapsed time


The movement opens agitatedly as the orchestra picks up fragments of one theme after another from the previous three movements, as if seeking a satisfactory vehicle for its expression; but each is discarded in turn.


The first seven notes of the main theme to come are tentatively uttered, but it too is abandoned as the search continues.


Once again the theme begins, this time in the woodwinds, but it soon breaks off.


Finally, the theme emerges decisively in the basses for a subdued first statement.


The second statement is calm, tranquil, confident, and the theme continues onward in the various voices of the orchestra, broad and flowing.


The winds make a strong statement of the theme.


The flow of the music abruptly halts–there are rapid shifts–great agitation, until


the orchestra introduces the baritone singing the first three lines of the poem, rejecting the feverish discords of the previous passage, calling for a different music, whose nature is suggested by the strings beneath his voice:


O Freunde, nicht diese Töne,
O friends, not these notes!
sondern lasst uns angenehmere

Rather let us take up something more
anstimmen, und freudenvollere.

pleasant, and more joyful.


The chorus echoes his “Freude!” and he is off through the first part of the ode on the main theme:


Freude, schöner Götterfunken
Joy, lovely divine light,
Tochter aus Elysium

Daughter of Elysium
Wir betreten feuertrunken,

We march, drunk with fire,
Himmlische, dein Heiligtum.

Holy One, to thy holy kingdom.
Deine Zauber binden wieder,

Thy magic binds together
Was die Mode streng geteilt;

What tradition has strongly parted,
Alle Menschen werden Brüder,

All men will be brothers
Wo dein sanfter Flügel weilt.

Dwelling under the safety of your wings.


The chorus recapitulates the last four lines of this section.


The theme is now presented by a vocal quartet, which continues the ode:


Wem der grosse Wurf gelungen,
He who has had the great pleasure
Eines Freundes Freund zu sein

To be a true friend to a friend,
Wer ein holdes Weib errungen,

He who has a noble wife
Mische seinen Jubel ein!

Let him join our mighty song of rejoicing!
Ja–wer auch nur eine Seele

Yes–if there is a solitary soul
Sein nennt auf’ dem Erdenrund!

In the entire world which claims him–
Und wer’s nie gekonnt, der stehle

If he rejects it, then let him steal away
Weinend sich aus diesem Bund.

Weeping out of this comradeship.


alternating with the chorus, which repeats the last four lines, and the quartet then sings:


Freude trinken alle Wesen
All beings drink in joy
An den Brüsten der Natur;

From nature’s breasts.
Alle Guten, alle Bösen

All good and evil things
Folgen ihrer Rosenspur.

Follow her rose-strewn path.
Küsse gab sie uns und Reben

She gives us kisses and grapes,
Einen Freund, geprüft im Tod;

A friend, tested unto death,
Wollust ward dem Wurm gegeben,

Pleasure is given even to the worm
Und der Cherub steht vor Gott.

And the cherubim stand before God.


with the chorus repeating the last four lines of this section. Each time through the theme is treated to ever more elaborate variations.


There is a dramatic pause at the climax of the word “God”, and the theme emerges rhythmically transformed in the winds as a military march, matching the martial words of the tenor in these lines:


Froh, wie seine Sonnen fliegen
Happy, like thy Sun which flies
Durch des Himmels prächt’gen Plan,

Through the splendid Heavens,
Wandelt, Brüder, eure Bahn,

Wander, Brothers, on your road
Freudig, wie ein Held zum Siegen.

Joyful, like a hero going to victory.


An orchestral interlude.


The chorus re-enters, repeating these lines :


Freude, schöner Götterfunken
Joy, lovely divine light,
Tochter aus Elysium

Daughter of Elysium
Wir betreten feuertrunken,

We march, drunk with fire,
Himmlische, dein Heiligtum.

Holy One, to thy holy kingdom.
Deine Zauber binden wieder,

Thy magic binds together
Was die Mode streng geteilt;

What tradition has strongly parted,
Alle Menschen werden Brüder,

All men will be brothers
Wo dein sanfter Flügel weilt.

Dwelling under the safety of your wings.


There is a dramatic shift, and the poem continues:


Seid umschlungen, Millionen!
Be embraced, you multitudes,
Diesen Kuss der ganzen Welt!

In this kiss of the entire world.
Brüder–überm Sternenzelt

Brothers–over the canopy of stars
Muss ein lieber Vater wohnen!

A loving Father must live.


and these lines are then repeated.


The religious section of the ode begins as the chorus intones in an awed manner: Ihr stürzt nieder, Millionen?
Millions, do you fall upon your knees?


The music rises hopefully toward God and the heavens as the final lines of verse are sung:


Ahnest du den Schöpfer, Welt?
Do you sense the Creator, world?
Such’ ihn überm Sternenzelt!

Seek Him above the canopy of stars!
Über Sternen muss er wohnen.

Surely He lives above the stars.


The last section, from “Seid umschlungen, Millionen!” is repeated triumphantly in counterpoint.


A dramatic hush, the music rises steadily.


The quartet then re-enters with the following lines from the beginning of the poem:


Daughter of Elysium
Deine Zauber binden wieder,

Thy magic binds together
Was die Mode streng geteilt;

What tradition has strongly parted,


The chorus underlines “Alle Menschen werden Brüder,” “All mankind will be brothers.”


The same line is repeated ecstatically by the quartet, which soars upward to


its peak.


The orchestra and chorus re-enter at a rapid tempo to bring the movement to its


conclusion……


the end….


 

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